Breast cancer is among the most common diagnosis in women.

It originates in the breast tissue. It occurs when breast cells mutate and grow out of control, creating a mass of tissue called a tumor. Breast cancer may invade and grow into the tissue surrounding the breast. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer.

Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules. Breast cancer can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is said to have metastasized.1

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer2,3

Breast cancer is most often diagnosed in adults over the age of 50, but it can occur at any age.2

Screenings and exams are crucial for early detection and treatment. Doctors often use various tests to find or diagnose breast cancer. There are tests for diagnosis of breast cancer as follows:

  • Breast ultrasound: A machine that uses sound waves to make pictures, called sonograms, of areas inside the breast.

  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A kind of body scan that uses a magnet linked to a computer and makes detailed pictures of areas inside the breast.

  • Biopsy: This is a test that removes tissue or fluid from the breast to be looked at under a microscope and do more testing.

The main test for diagnosis of breast cancer is Mammography.

Mammography is done by mammogram. A mammogram is a low-dose X-ray of breast tissue. Healthcare providers use mammograms, or mammography, to look for early signs of breast cancer before symptoms develop. This is called a screening mammogram. Providers also use mammography to look for any abnormalities if you develop a new symptom, such as a lump, pain, nipple discharge, or breast skin changes. This is called a diagnostic mammogram.4

The procedure of Mammography:5

A woman stands in front of a special X-ray machine. A technologist will place the breast on a plastic plate. Another plate will firmly press the breast from above. The plates will flatten the breast, holding it still while the X-ray is being taken. The steps are repeated to make a side view of the breast. The other breast will be X-rayed in the same way. Then the technologist checks the X-ray picture.

There are two main types of mammograms:4

Digital mammography in 2D:

  • Digital mammography is hasalso known as analog mammography. Digital mammography uses X-rays to produce an image of the breast.

  • It provides an electronic image that’s stored as a computer file and allows healthcare providers to save the file electronically and to more easily evaluate and share the images.

  • A digital mammogram usually involves at least two pictures of each breast taken at different angles typically from top to bottom and from side to side and provides a two-dimensional (2D) view.

Digital mammography in 3D:

  • 3D mammography is a newer type of mammogram in which each breast is compressed once and a machine takes several low-dose X-rays as it moves in an arc over the breast.

  • A computer then puts the images together, which allows healthcare providers to see your breast tissues more clearly in three dimensions.

  • Many studies have revealed that 3D mammography increases cancer detection, including lower-grade cancers, and decreases false-positive rates.

National Mammography Day is a part of Breast Cancer Awareness month and is celebrated on the third Friday of October every year.

Mammograms are a hugely important aspect of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, as millions of women across the globe are encouraged to attend Mammography screenings as part of the defense against developing breast cancer. The goal of Mammography Day is to spread awareness of breast cancer screenings that help detect cancer and other medical problems associated with the breasts. 

The American Cancer Society recommends that all women follow the national guidelines when it comes to breast cancer defense, the goal is to make sure that:

  • All women aged 40 to 44 are given the choice to start annual breast cancer screening.

  • Women aged 45 to 55 have access to breast cancer screening every year

  • Women over 55 should get screened every 2 years

  • All women should have access to accurate and up-to-date information about breast cancer and associated risks and prevention.


  1. What Is Breast Cancer? Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.
  2. Breast Cancer. Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.
  3. How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed? Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.
  4. Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.
  5. What Is a Mammogram? Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.
  6. October 16th: National Mammography Day. Available at: Assessed on 29th September 2022.

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